In the past, most of the fat extracted from people for body-shaping was discarded as waste. Currently, medical experts have proved that fat contains a mass of stem cells, which have the potential of in vitro proliferation and multiple differentiation. Therefore, it can be used for the regeneration and repair of tissues and organs.
Up to now, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the most significant multidirectional potential characteristics among adult stem cells. MSCs are a cell group with bone formation ability and hematopoietic function found in most adult organs, which can be extracted from bone marrow, cord blood and fat. Under specific cultural conditions, MSCs can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and myocytes.
Currently, MSCs are the main seed cells of tissue engineering, and relative studies have been carried out for many years. Although great progress has been made in tissue engineering, its clinical application is limited due to the difficulty in obtaining MSCs and their in vitro proliferation. Therefore, one of the urgent problems to be solved in tissue engineering is to find a seed cell that is easy to obtain, with low immunogenicity and easy to proliferate in vitro.
In 2001, Zuk et al. isolated a class of stem cells with multidirectional differentiation potential from adipose tissue, and successfully differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and myocytes in vitro culture, which were named adipose-derived mesenchymal cells, namely adipose-derived stem cells in this paper. Adipose-derived stem cells are adult stem cells originated from mesoderm like bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which exist in adipose tissue matrix and have strong proliferation ability and multi-directional differentiation potential. In recent years, a mass of studies have confirmed that adipose-derived stem cells can differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and nerve cells.
Adipose-derived stem cells and MSCs not only have very similar biological properties, but also very close in the expression of cell surface markers. Although adipose-derived stem cells were discovered late, many advantages of adipose-derived stem cells have attracted the attention of a wide range of researchers. Relatively speaking, adipose-derived stem cells have abundant sources, easy access, large cell acquisition, and multi-directional differentiation potential, becoming one of the ideal sources of seed cells for tissue engineering. However, in order to become an ideal seed cell for tissue engineering, it is not enough to have the above advantages, and it must cross the threshold of transplant rejection. Transplant rejection is caused by the immune system of the recipient when receiving allograft tissue or organ transplantation, including host versus graft reaction and graft-versus-host reaction. Transplant rejection is a very complex immunological phenomenon, and the specific mechanism involves a variety of immune injury mechanisms mediated by cells and antibodies, all of which are aimed at the major histocompatibility antigens in allogeneic tissues. The degree of difference between donor and recipient human major histocompatibility antigens determines the severity of rejection. Therefore, the ideal seed cells for tissue engineering should not only be easy to obtain and rich in sources, but also have low immunogenicity, so as to increase the survival rate in clinical application.
With the joint efforts of various R&D teams, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with high viability, large quantity and conforming to the characteristics of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been developed. We have confirmed through a mass of data that ADSCs can still maintain relatively high viability after cryopreservation and resuscitation, and the immunophenotype has hardly changed. The research results are of great significance to adipose-derived stem cell storage, medical cosmetology, breast enhancement and shaping, disease treatment, etc. Summary of autologous adipose-derived MSCs and their clinical application: With the increase of age, Skin relaxation, subcutaneous collagen reduction, fat particles reduction, fascia relaxation, muscle volume reduction and elasticity reduction will occur among facial tissues, and soft tissue volume will decrease, resulting in bone appearance, and the face shape will change from "goose egg-like shape" at young ages to "diamond-like shape". Due to tissue reduction and relaxation, the facial contour will show as an oval shape with small top and large bottom.
With the pursuit of beauty among people, medical hairdressing technology is becoming perfect day by day, and autologous adipose-derived MSCs are gradually applied in clinic. As an autologous tissue and renewable filling material, it has the advantages of abundant sources, easy access, simple operation, bionic nature, safety without rejection, and good prognosis. Autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation not only plays a role in improving facial contour, but also in anti-aging as fat itself contains a large number of cell growth factors, anti-free radicals and anti-oxidation functions, and MSCs have multi-differentiation potential, with active homing according to tissue needs, promote tissue repair, improve skin tissue glossiness, and repair damaged skin.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have multiple differentiation potential, which can not only form epidermal cells, bone and chondrocytes, stem cells, but also differentiate into cardiomyocytes, nerve cells, vascular endothelial cells and blood cells, etc. They also have great potential in tissue regeneration and tissue and organ repair. At present, autologous fat transplantation has become a safe, lasting and widely used minimally invasive surgical method for anti-aging. Human adipose tissue contains not only pre-adipocytes that have been stereotyped, but also adipose MSCs, which have multiple differentiation potentials.
How to improve the survival rate of autologous adipose-derived stem cell transplantation: There is a certain degree of absorption rate after autologous adipose-derived stem cell transplantation. According to the age of patients, transplantation site, transplantation volume and individual differences, the absorption rate of autologous fat from clinical observation, is about 30% ~ 90%, with an average of over 60%. How to reduce the absorption and prognosis after transplantation have become the key technology of adipose-derived stem cell transplantation. Stem cells, while assisting fat transplantation, can differentiate into adipocytes, supplement the number of adipocytes reduced due to injury, and realize fat regeneration; meanwhile, it can differentiate into vascular endothelial cells to promote angiogenesis and blood supply recovery; through paracrine, it can release vascular growth factor and adjust local microcirculation of tissues.
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